CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
We the People of the United States, in Order to form amore perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tran-quillity, provide for the common defence, promote the generalWelfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves andour Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for theUnited States of America.
Section. 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall bevested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consistof a Senate and House of Representatives.
Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composedof Members chosen every second Year by the People of the sev-eral States, and the Electors in each State shall have theQualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerousBranch of the State Legislature.
No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have at-tained to the age of twenty five Years, and been seven Yearsa Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected,be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportionedamong the several States which may be included within thisUnion, according to their respective Numbers, which shall bedetermined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, in-cluding those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and exclud-ing Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The ac-tual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after thefirst Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as theyshall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall notexceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall haveat Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shallbe made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chusethree, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plan-tations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four,Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the Representation from anyState, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Elec-tion to fill such Vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speakerand other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeach-ment.
Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be com-posed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legisla-ture thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequenceof the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may beinto three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Classshall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of thesecond Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of thethird Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that onethird may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies hap-pen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Leg-islature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature,which shall then fill such Vacancies.
No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attainedto the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of theUnited States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhab-itant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
The Vice President of the United States shall be Presidentof the Senate but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally di-vided.
The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also aPresident pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, orwhen he shall exercise the Office of President of the UnitedStates.
The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeach-ments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath orAffirmation. When the President of the United States is triedthe Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be con-victed without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Memberspresent.
Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend fur-ther than to removal from Office, and disqualification to holdand enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the UnitedStates: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable andsubject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, ac-cording to Law.
Section. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elec-tions for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed ineach State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as tothe Places of chusing Senators.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year,and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
Section. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majorityof each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smallerNumber may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorizedto compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner,and under such Penalties as each House may provide.
Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings,punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with theConcurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, andfrom time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts asmay in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Naysof the Members of either House on any question shall, at theDesire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, with-out the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days,nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shallbe sitting.